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[2018]
Self-sustained enzymatic cascade for the production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid from 5-methoxymethylfurfural
Carro J, Fernandez-Fueyo E, Fernández-Alonso C, Cañada J, Ullrich R, Hofrichter M, Alcalde M, Ferreira P, Martínez AT

Biotechnol. Biofuels, 11: 86-96


Background
2,5-Furandicarboxylic acid is a renewable building block for the production of polyfurandicarboxylates, which are biodegradable polyesters expected to substitute their classical counterparts derived from fossil resources. It may be produced from bio-based 5-hydroxymethylfurfural or 5-methoxymethylfurfural, both obtained by the acidic dehydration of biomass-derived fructose. 5-Methoxymethylfurfural, which is produced in the presence of methanol, generates less by-products and exhibits better storage stability than 5-hydroxymethylfurfural being, therefore, the industrial substrate of choice.

Results
In this work, an enzymatic cascade involving three fungal oxidoreductases has been developed for the production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid from 5-methoxymethylfurfural. Aryl-alcohol oxidase and unspecific peroxygenase act on 5-methoxymethylfurfural and its partially oxidized derivatives yielding 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, as well as methanol as a by-product. Methanol oxidase takes advantage of the methanol released for in situ producing H2O2 that, along with that produced by aryl-alcohol oxidase, fuels the peroxygenase reactions. In this way, the enzymatic cascade proceeds independently, with the only input of atmospheric O2, to attain a 70% conversion of initial 5-methoxymethylfurfural. The addition of some exogenous methanol to the reaction further improves the yield to attain an almost complete conversion of 5-methoxymethylfurfural into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid.

Conclusions
The synergistic action of aryl-alcohol oxidase and unspecific peroxygenase in the presence of 5-methoxymethylfurfural and O2 is sufficient for the production of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. The addition of methanol oxidase to the enzymatic cascade increases the 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid yields by oxidizing a reaction by-product to fuel the peroxygenase reactions.


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