Oxidations catalyzed by fungal peroxygenases
Hofrichter M, Ullrich R
Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol., 19: 116-125
The enzymatic oxyfunctionalization of organic molecules under physiological conditions has attracted keen interest from the chemical community. Unspecific peroxygenases (EC 22.214.171.124) secreted by fungi represent an intriguing enzyme type that selectively transfers peroxide-borne oxygen with high efficiency to diverse substrates including unactivated hydrocarbons. They are glycosylated heme-thiolate enzymes that form a separate superfamily of heme proteins. Among the catalyzed reactions are hydroxylations, epoxidations, dealkylations, oxidations of organic hetero atoms and inorganic halides as well as one-electron oxidations. The substrate spectrum of fungal peroxygenases and the product patterns show similarities both to cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and classic heme peroxidases. Given that selective oxyfunctionalizations are among the most difficult to realize chemical reactions and that respectively transformed molecules are of general importance in organic and pharmaceutical syntheses, it will be worth developing peroxygenase biocatalysts for industrial applications.